Tag Archives: research

Pananaliksik: Angkop na Pamamaraan sa Pagkatuto

9 Nov

Ang mga mag-aaral ay mayroon kanya-kanyang katangian at kakayahan sa pag-aaral. Ang bawa’t isa ay may natatanging kaalaman, talino at abilidad upang matulungan ang sarili na unawain ang mga naturang paksa o mga gawain na nais ibahagi ng kanilang mga guro sa paaralan. Subalit, ano ang nararapat gawin ng mga mag-aaral para lalong nilang maintindihan ang mga naturang paksa? Paano nila gagawin ito para mailapat naaayon sa kanilang sariling kaalaman, kakayahan at abilidad? Simple lamang ang kasagutan nito. Bawa’t mag-aaral ay dapat matutong manaliksik hindi lamang sa kanilang  Asignaturang Pananaliksik kundi kahit sa anumang mga asignatura o kurso na inilalatag at isinasakatuparan sa kasalukuyan naaayon sa kurikulum ng bawat paaralan o anuman institusyon na may sapat at wastong layunin para makamit ang pangkalahatang pagkatuto ng bawat mamamayang Pilipino.

Layunin at Kahalagahan

Gaano ba kahalaga na matuto ang bawa’t mag-aaral na manaliksik? Una, sa pananaliksik ay natututo ang mag-aaral na hanapin at alamin ang mga bagong kaalaman o interesadong mga bagay na sila mismo ang nakaalam o gumawa nito. Natututulungan ang mga mag-aaral na maging masipag, matiyaga, malikhain at malayang magdisisyon, kumilos o gumalaw na hindi umaaasa sa iba. Pangalawa, sa pananaliksik ay natutulungan mismo ng mag-aaral ang kanyang sarili na matuto. Sapagka’t hindi lamang ang paningin, pandinig, pang-amoy, panlasa at pakiramdam ang ginagamit sa pananaliksik kundi pati malalim na pagsusuri at interpretasyon ng bawat impormasyon na makuha nila ay maayos na maiproseso sa kanilang mga kaisipan. Sa ganoong paraan, malaking bahagi sa pagkatuto nila ang wastong pamamaraan ng pananaliksik dahil hindi lamang nila ito pinag-iisipan bagkus ginagawa rin nila ito para matuto na umaayon sa teorya ni John Dewey sa wikang Ingles na “Learn by doing it.”  Panghuli, Ang pananaliksik ay isang kasangkapan para mapahusay lalo ang kakayahan ng mag-aaral sa pakikipagkomunikasyon; mapalawak lalo ang magandang relasyon ng mag-aaral sa kanyang kapwa at mapalawig pang lalo ang kaalaman niya sa kanyang kapaligiran at lipunang ginagalawan.

Mga Dapat Tandaan

Sa pananaliksik ay marami ang dapat tandaan ng mga mag-aaral. Nakatala ito sa gawing ibaba.

  1. Maging mapatmatyag sa buong kapaligiran.
  2. Tukuyin ang napipintong suliranin o tinatayang balakid.
  3. Ilahad ang posibleng solusyon sa nasabing suliranin.
  4. Magplano ng isang maayos na pamamaraan para masolusyonan ang nasabing suliranin.
  5. Kumilos o gumawa naaayon sa plano at pamamaraang nabanggit.
  6. Magtala ng mga datus o mahahalagang impormasyon.
  7. Suriing mabuti ang bawat detalye ng impormasyon at lapatan ng angkop na gamit pang-statistica para sa interpretasyon nito.
  8. Sabihin o ilahad ang resulta nito. Ulitin ang pamamaraan ng maraming beses.
  9. Ilahad muli ang pangkalahatang resulta para masagutan ang mga katanungan o matugunan ang mga suliranin o balakid.
  10. Ipahayag ang mga bagong impormasyon o epektibong solusyon ng nasabing suliranin para sa mga mambabasa.

Mga Dapat Iwasan

Sa pananaliksik, marami ang dapat iwasan ng mga mag-aaral.  Ito ay ang mga sumusunod:

  1. Iwasan ang mga impormasyon sa Internet na pawang mali o hindi makakatotohanan.
  2. Iwasan ang maling paggamit ng Internet at hindi wastong pag-uugali at gawi sa paggamit nito
  3. Iwasan ang mga taong manloloko, mapagsamantala, mapanlamang sa kapwa, mapagkunwari o mapagpanggap at may kaduda-dudang hangarin o motibo.

 

 

 

 

 

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Parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report

18 Jul

Science Investigatory Project

Doing an investigatory project considers as a major achievement of any students in Science.  Through scientific investigation, they learn how to apply the acquired knowledge,  scientific concepts, theories, principles and laws of nature.  They can use their higher-order process or thinking skills in conducting a research. Let us provide you a brief description of the parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report below.

Title

The Title should be clear and precise.  It has an objective or purpose.  It should not be written too long or too short.  By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all about.

Abstract

The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only.  It includes your research problems, the method or procedure that you used and the findings or conclusion of the study.

Chapter I

1. Introduction and Its Background

The Introduction is about one page only wherein it includes the background of the study and its rationale.  It usually leads into the research problem.

2.  Statement of the Problem

The Statement of the Problem has two categories namely: the general problem and specific problems.  Usually, one general problem and three specific problems which derived from the general problem.  The research problems should be specific, reliable,valid, measurable, objectively stated.  It can be a question form or in a declarative statement.

3. Formulation of the Hypothesis

The Formulation of the Hypothesis has two types namely: the null hypothesis and affirmative hypothesis.  Hypotheses is a scientific guess which intends subject for thorough investigation.  It is recommended to use null hypothesis in your research project.

4. Significance of the Study

The Significance of the Study indicates how important is your investigatory project for the people, environment and community as a whole.  It is really relevant in the changing world or global impact into the field of technology.

5.  Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The Scope and Delimitation of the Study covers the range of your research.  It includes the period of research, the materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment to be used.

6. Definition of Terms

The Definition of Terms has two types: the Dictionary-derived definitions and the Operational definitions which derived from how these terms were used in your research.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature

The Related Literature are statements taken from science books, journals, magazines, newspapers and any documents from authorized scientists, Science experts or well-known Science agencies. These statements can support your study through their concepts, theories, principles and laws.  Footnoting is important on this part.

Related Studies

The Related Studies are those researches which may be local and foreign studies who can attribute to your research or can support your investigation scientifically.  Footnoting is also important on this part.

Chapter III

Methodology has several parts namely: the subject of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment

1. The Subject of the Study

The Subject of the Study includes your population and the sample.  It applies the sampling techniques to obtain a good sample of the study.  Your sample should be valid and reliable.

2. The Procedure

The Procedure is the step by step and systematic process of doing your research.  It includes the materials with right amount of measurements, the appropriate equipment to be used in doing the scientific investigation.  It consists of several trials with control variables, independent variables and dependent variables.  Gathering of data is essential in any kind of research.  It is recommended to use control and experimental set-ups to arrive at valid conclusion.

3. Research Design

The Research Design may be shown through Theoretical Framework or Conceptual Framework wherein the researcher plans and designs his study with significant theories, concepts and connections. It shows the input, intervention and output of the study.

 

4. The Statistical Treatment

The Statistical Treatment comes in various ways.  It can be mean, median, mode, percentage, Chi-square, standard deviation, T-test, Pearson r, Spearman rank or Anova I or Anova II.  It is recommended to use T-test in any experimental research.

Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

1. Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The data gathered should be presented in order to be analyzed. It may be presented in two forms namely: through table or graph.  You may use both of them if you want to clearly figure out your data. A table has labels with quantity, description and units of measurement.  Graph has several types namely the line graph, bar graph, pie graph and pictograph. Choose what type of graph that you prefer to use.  Analyze the data that had been gathered, presented in table or graph scientifically.  You interpret the data according to what had been quantified and measured.  The numerical data should be interpreted clearly in simple and descriptive statements.

2. Results

Results show the findings or outcomes of your investigation.  The result must be based according to the interpreted data.

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

1. Summary

The Summary briefly summarizes your research from Chapter I to Chapter IV which includes the research problems, methodology and findings.  It consists of one or two paragraphs only.

2. Conclusion

The Conclusion is the direct statement based on findings or results. It should answer your hypothesis and research problems.

3. Recommendation

The Recommendation is given based on your conclusion.  You may give few recommendations which you think can help the fellow Science students, researchers, consumers or the entire community where people live in.