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Pananaliksik: Angkop na Pamamaraan sa Pagkatuto

9 Nov

Ang mga mag-aaral ay mayroon kanya-kanyang katangian at kakayahan sa pag-aaral. Ang bawa’t isa ay may natatanging kaalaman, talino at abilidad upang matulungan ang sarili na unawain ang mga naturang paksa o mga gawain na nais ibahagi ng kanilang mga guro sa paaralan. Subalit, ano ang nararapat gawin ng mga mag-aaral para lalong nilang maintindihan ang mga naturang paksa? Paano nila gagawin ito para mailapat naaayon sa kanilang sariling kaalaman, kakayahan at abilidad? Simple lamang ang kasagutan nito. Bawa’t mag-aaral ay dapat matutong manaliksik hindi lamang sa kanilang  Asignaturang Pananaliksik kundi kahit sa anumang mga asignatura o kurso na inilalatag at isinasakatuparan sa kasalukuyan naaayon sa kurikulum ng bawat paaralan o anuman institusyon na may sapat at wastong layunin para makamit ang pangkalahatang pagkatuto ng bawat mamamayang Pilipino.

Layunin at Kahalagahan

Gaano ba kahalaga na matuto ang bawa’t mag-aaral na manaliksik? Una, sa pananaliksik ay natututo ang mag-aaral na hanapin at alamin ang mga bagong kaalaman o interesadong mga bagay na sila mismo ang nakaalam o gumawa nito. Natututulungan ang mga mag-aaral na maging masipag, matiyaga, malikhain at malayang magdisisyon, kumilos o gumalaw na hindi umaaasa sa iba. Pangalawa, sa pananaliksik ay natutulungan mismo ng mag-aaral ang kanyang sarili na matuto. Sapagka’t hindi lamang ang paningin, pandinig, pang-amoy, panlasa at pakiramdam ang ginagamit sa pananaliksik kundi pati malalim na pagsusuri at interpretasyon ng bawat impormasyon na makuha nila ay maayos na maiproseso sa kanilang mga kaisipan. Sa ganoong paraan, malaking bahagi sa pagkatuto nila ang wastong pamamaraan ng pananaliksik dahil hindi lamang nila ito pinag-iisipan bagkus ginagawa rin nila ito para matuto na umaayon sa teorya ni John Dewey sa wikang Ingles na “Learn by doing it.”  Panghuli, Ang pananaliksik ay isang kasangkapan para mapahusay lalo ang kakayahan ng mag-aaral sa pakikipagkomunikasyon; mapalawak lalo ang magandang relasyon ng mag-aaral sa kanyang kapwa at mapalawig pang lalo ang kaalaman niya sa kanyang kapaligiran at lipunang ginagalawan.

Mga Dapat Tandaan

Sa pananaliksik ay marami ang dapat tandaan ng mga mag-aaral. Nakatala ito sa gawing ibaba.

  1. Maging mapatmatyag sa buong kapaligiran.
  2. Tukuyin ang napipintong suliranin o tinatayang balakid.
  3. Ilahad ang posibleng solusyon sa nasabing suliranin.
  4. Magplano ng isang maayos na pamamaraan para masolusyonan ang nasabing suliranin.
  5. Kumilos o gumawa naaayon sa plano at pamamaraang nabanggit.
  6. Magtala ng mga datus o mahahalagang impormasyon.
  7. Suriing mabuti ang bawat detalye ng impormasyon at lapatan ng angkop na gamit pang-statistica para sa interpretasyon nito.
  8. Sabihin o ilahad ang resulta nito. Ulitin ang pamamaraan ng maraming beses.
  9. Ilahad muli ang pangkalahatang resulta para masagutan ang mga katanungan o matugunan ang mga suliranin o balakid.
  10. Ipahayag ang mga bagong impormasyon o epektibong solusyon ng nasabing suliranin para sa mga mambabasa.

Mga Dapat Iwasan

Sa pananaliksik, marami ang dapat iwasan ng mga mag-aaral.  Ito ay ang mga sumusunod:

  1. Iwasan ang mga impormasyon sa Internet na pawang mali o hindi makakatotohanan.
  2. Iwasan ang maling paggamit ng Internet at hindi wastong pag-uugali at gawi sa paggamit nito
  3. Iwasan ang mga taong manloloko, mapagsamantala, mapanlamang sa kapwa, mapagkunwari o mapagpanggap at may kaduda-dudang hangarin o motibo.

 

 

 

 

 

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Warm Up the Snow

23 Jun
Rehoboth Beach

Rehoboth Beach

Some things change gradually over time.  Your physical body changes as you grow and develop.  Your mental condition changes too as your physical body changes.  Your social-emotional condition changes as your mental state changes.  Do such changes influence you? Would it significantly contribute to your attitude in life? Does it attribute most in building a positive relationship to others? Let us consider the following discussions below.

Relationship to your family and friends

What are the things that maintain your good relationship to your family and friends? How would you bridge the existing gap or conflicts among your family members or friends? Do you have the ways and means to do it effectively? Do you have open communication with each other? Are you always busy in life or making so many excuses instead of facing up the reality? Would it be necessary of having a third party to intervene in solving family problems or getting back the genuine friendship? Well, whatever your valid and logical reasons, I think there is a need to talk about it and be encouraged to get involved on family matters and keeping the good relationship.

Relationship to your co-workers and organization

People all over the world get employed in a company, agency or organization which they need their good services. They get into the private sectors, government-managed agencies or charitable institutions.  If  you are one of them, are they treated you equally? Are you receiving the same equal opportunities like anyone else in that organization? Are they executing fair labor practices regardless of who you are? Do they respect you as a human being? Do they recognize your strengths instead of your weaknesses?  If you are in the business sector, you may understand that profits are better than wages in order  to attain a better quality of life especially if you do it appropriately and effectively.  However, possession of wealth is definitely temporary on  earth.  Even your current job position, you cannot hold it permanently. That is why always be humble to yourself. Everything may come and go. Remember, we are living temporarily on earth.

Relationship to the Almighty One

People around the world have different religions, churches or denominations.  Their faith, beliefs and philosophies in life depend on what they believe in or what their church teaches to them.  Do you really follow of what you preach? Do you really apply the good teachings that you had learned from your church? If your answer is Yes, go ahead and multiply. But if not, does it make any sense at all? Perhaps all the religions or churches I think would agree on what has been stated in the Golden Rule that goes “Do not do unto others what you do not want others do unto you.”

Warm up the Snow

It is not too late. Like the weather that keeps on changing every now and then.  Sometimes, there are things that seem cold like a snow that needs to warm up.  Our positive relationship to our family, friends, co-workers, organization and Almighty One does mostly matters.

Christmas, Christmas, Christmas

9 Sep

Christmas Lanterns

As early as September, Christmas season starts already in the Philippines.  It considers as the longest and happiest holiday throughout the year in the Philippines. It starts on the first of September and ends on the first week of January after the ‘Three Kings Visitation’. What are the observable things in the Philippines that is really Christmas season? Let us enumerate below

Media plays important role during Christmas season. 

Christmas songs are played in all radio stations which make the people feel better and happy while listening to the music.  TV stations broadcast commercials with the theme of Christmas.  They have also TV programs, contests, games and charity services for the Christmas season. Print media like newspapers and magazines are accepting ads from various employers intended for job applicants for the Christmas season.

House and School Preparation

As early as September, homeowners decorate their houses with Christmas decors like Christmas tree, Christmas lanterns, Christmas lights, The Holy Family, Santa Claus, angels and so forth.  Christmas decors vary from one house to another.  It might be Christmas decors which they bought from shopping malls or stalls.  It might be their own unique decors out of recycled materials.  The house looks wonderful and brings the Christmas atmosphere to anybody that comes in.  Schools both public and private also prepare for the Christmas season.  Students decor their classrooms nicely.  They make Christmas lanterns and Christmas cards from any available materials at hand.

Mall of Asia

Shopping, Shopping, Shopping

When the people receive their 13th-month pay and Christmas bonus, they go to shopping malls to buy new house appliances, gadgets, clothes, shoes, Christmas gifts, grocery items and many more.  Most business establishments and companies gain more profits during Christmas season due to the buying public. Filipino farmers have harvest their crops and sell it to the market.  They have enough money to buy new things too. It is better and convenient to shop for Christmas gifts on the months of September and October because more sales and clearances during this period.

Misa de Gallo

Christmas Weather

Even the Philippines is in the tropic region, the country experiences slightly cold weather during the month of November until January due to the monsoon wind from the north pole.  People use sweater or jacket in going to church to attend the Holy Mass which  usually starts at 4 o’clock in the morning. The whole Filipino family hear the mass early then they proceed to fast food chains or market afterwards.  The early morning mass starts on December 16 and ends on Christmas Day.

Noche Buena

Christmas Programs, Christmas Parties, Family and School Reunions

The month of December is the busiest month for all the Filipinos.  They prepare for the upcoming Christmas Programs, Christmas Parties, Family or School Reunions. Schools and other business companies have their own Christmas programs and parties.  People cook plenty of foods and invite their relatives, close friends and neighbors to eat, sing and dance together during Christmas Eve or Christmas Day. It is memorable and wonderful experience.  Christmas carols is being practiced also from one house to another by most of the children and some adults. There is a number of family reunions or school reunions during the Christmas season which extends up to the first week of January before the summer months begin.  The reunion is very awesome because there are a lot of foods to eat and fun activities to do.

Parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report

28 Aug

Parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report.

Flood, Flood, Flood

10 Aug

“Come on. Hold my hand.”

People around the world were so affected whenever flood occurs in their respective areas.  Rain water flows everywhere from a higher place to a lower place.  Real properties that you had developed and built within a number of years from bank loans and family incomes were washed away in just a couple of minutes.  Agricultural crops were devastated and farm animals were disturbed too. Schools in all levels and government offices were closed for several days or even weeks.  No business transactions anywhere and the country’s economy declined.  Most of the main streets were not passable and people were stranded. Sometimes, heavy flood resulted into more casualties and a number of injured persons and sick people due to landslides, drowning, electric-shock incident and congested environment.

Preventive Measures

It is beyond the control of man about the weather disturbances like flood.  It occurs anytime and anywhere.  However, we can prevent more of its damages and destruction if we follow certain precautions below.

  •  Update yourself about daily weather in your area.  Always see or hear the latest weather bulletin in your touch screen mobile phone,  TV and radio broadcast stations and daily newspapers.
  • Have a two-floor or three-floor house if you are living in a low land which serves as the basin of flowing water.  It should have a strong foundation against flood.
  • Always check your electrical installation if the electric outlets and extension cords on it are high enough for the safety of family members against entry and rapid rising of water inside the house.
  • Insured your real properties and investments so that it will not be a total lost when calamities occur like flood.
  • Harvest agricultural crops in seasoned and sell it in the market immediately.
  • Build a stable shelter for farm animals and/or sell some of them in the market.
  • Stay in your safe home during heavy flood until the water subsides.  However, vacate your house if it is necessary for your own safety as well as of your family.
  • Always ready your first-aid kit with complete medicines against diarrhea, cold and high fever.
  • Have non-perishable food items in your storage cabinets such as canned goods, cup noodles, rice and get enough potable water too.

Parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report

18 Jul

Science Investigatory Project

Doing an investigatory project considers as a major achievement of any students in Science.  Through scientific investigation, they learn how to apply the acquired knowledge,  scientific concepts, theories, principles and laws of nature.  They can use their higher-order process or thinking skills in conducting a research. Let us provide you a brief description of the parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report below.

Title

The Title should be clear and precise.  It has an objective or purpose.  It should not be written too long or too short.  By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all about.

Abstract

The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only.  It includes your research problems, the method or procedure that you used and the findings or conclusion of the study.

Chapter I

1. Introduction and Its Background

The Introduction is about one page only wherein it includes the background of the study and its rationale.  It usually leads into the research problem.

2.  Statement of the Problem

The Statement of the Problem has two categories namely: the general problem and specific problems.  Usually, one general problem and three specific problems which derived from the general problem.  The research problems should be specific, reliable,valid, measurable, objectively stated.  It can be a question form or in a declarative statement.

3. Formulation of the Hypothesis

The Formulation of the Hypothesis has two types namely: the null hypothesis and affirmative hypothesis.  Hypotheses is a scientific guess which intends subject for thorough investigation.  It is recommended to use null hypothesis in your research project.

4. Significance of the Study

The Significant of the Study indicates how important is your investigatory project for the people, environment and community as a whole.  It is really relevant in the changing world or global impact into the field of technology.

5.  Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The Scope and Delimitation of the Study covers the range of your research.  It includes the period of research, the materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment to be used.

6. Definition of Terms

The Definition of Terms has two types: the Dictionary-derived definitions and the Operational definitions which derived from how these terms were used in your research.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature

The Related Literature are statements taken from science books, journals, magazines, newspapers and any documents from authorized scientists, Science experts or well-known Science agencies. These statements can support your study through their concepts, theories, principles and laws.  Footnoting is important on this part.

Related Studies

The Related Studies are those researches which may be local and foreign studies who can attribute to your research or can support your investigation scientifically.  Footnoting is also important on this part.

Chapter III

Methodology has several parts namely: the subject of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment

1. The Subject of the Study

The Subject of the Study includes your population and the sample.  It applies the sampling techniques to obtain a good sample of the study.  Your sample should be valid and reliable.

2. The Procedure

The Procedure is the step by step and systematic process of doing your research.  It includes the materials with right amount of measurements, the appropriate equipment to be used in doing the scientific investigation.  It consists of several trials with control variables, independent variables and dependent variables.  Gathering of data is essential in any kind of research.  It is recommended to use control and experimental set-ups to arrive at valid conclusion.

3. The Statistical Treatment

The Statistical Treatment comes in various ways.  It can be mean, median, mode, percentage, Chi-square, standard deviation, T-test, Pearson r, Spearman rank or Anova I or Anova II.  It is recommended to use T-test in any experimental research.

Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

1. Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The data gathered should be presented in order to be analyzed. It may be presented in two forms namely: through table or graph.  You may use both of them if you want to clearly figure out your data. A table has labels with quantity, description and units of measurement.  Graph has several types namely the line graph, bar graph, pie graph and pictograph. Choose what type of graph that you prefer to use.  Analyze the data that had been gathered, presented in table or graph scientifically.  You interpret the data according to what had been quantified and measured.  The numerical data should be interpreted clearly in simple and descriptive statements.

2. Results

Results show the findings or outcomes of your investigation.  The result must be based according to the interpreted data.

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

1. Summary

The Summary briefly summarizes your research from Chapter I to Chapter IV which includes the research problems, methodology and findings.  It consists of one or two paragraphs only.

2. Conclusion

The Conclusion is the direct statement based on findings or results. It should answer your hypothesis and research problems.

3. Recommendation

The Recommendation is given based on your conclusion.  You may give few recommendations which you think can help the fellow Science students, researchers, consumers or the entire community where people live in.